Tag Archives: complete protein

Protein and mTOR

Proteins are large biological molecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues.

Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism. Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle.

Proteins are also necessary in animals’ diets, since animals cannot synthesize all the amino acids they need and must obtain essential amino acids from food. Through the process of digestion, animals break down ingested protein into free amino acids that are then used in metabolism.
The nine essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, L-tryptophan, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine. Additionally, cysteine (or sulphur-containing amino acids), tyrosine (or aromatic amino acids), and arginine are required by infants and growing children. Also, the amino acids arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline, serine and tyrosine are considered conditionally essential, meaning they are not normally required in the diet, but must be supplied to specific populations that do not synthesize them in adequate amounts.

Just as insulin serves as a sort of default sugar sensor and leptin serves as the body’s fat sensor, scientists have recently discovered that the mTOR pathway serves as the body’s protein sensor, monitoring the availability of protein, or amino acids, particularly leucine and methionine, for growth and reproduction. It is also impacted by insulin levels in the body. When protein levels are detected that are higher than basic maintenance requirements, the excess up-regulates the activity of the mTOR pathway, stimulating cellular proliferation and adverse mitochondrial effects, affecting the potential longevity of the individual. Increased insulin also has this effect. What is activated is our reproductive and cell-proliferating capacity.

Recent studies have shown that limiting dietary amino acids, especially methionine, inhibits mTOR signalling, which decreases mitochondrial damage and protein translation, resulting in slowed aging and improved health. Cellular proliferation occurs under three circumstances: reproduction, growth and cancer. The American Association of Cancer Research has stated that modified caloric restriction may offer a protective effect against the development of epithelial cancers.

If the amount of protein consumed stays below the threshold that stimulates cell proliferation, then ancient mechanisms kick in, which evolved to help the body outlive an apparent famine, by shutting down cell proliferation and up regulating repair and regeneration. In this case the body’s energy is conserved through maintaining our own cellular repair instead of producing new cells. This is dependent on ingesting just enough protein to meet the demands of our own repair, regeneration, and maintenance needs, which extend our longevity, optimize our health, and possibly reverse aging, without up-regulating mTOR or stimulating excessive insulin levels.

horizontal-162952_1280The amount of protein needed to avoid upregulating mTOR is estimated to be roughly 0.8 grams per kilogram (2.2 pounds) of ideal body weight. Click the previous link to access an ideal body weight calculator. The ideal body weight is based on age, height and sex. This calculator is designed for adults 18 or older.

For girls from 2 to 20 years of age use This Chart.

For boys from 2 to 20 years of age use This Chart.

Following are some examples of the daily protein requirement based on different ideal body weights:

100 pound ideal body weight (45 kg) x .8 g= 36 g

125 pound ideal body weight (57 kg) x .8 g = 46 g

150 pound ideal body weight (68 kg) x .8 g= 54 g

175 pound ideal body weight (80 kg) x .8 g= 64 g

These amounts are sufficient for the vast majority of adults, while athletes would require a bit more, somewhere in the neighborhood of 60 to 80 grams per day.

The following foods are sources of incomplete protein but do contribute to the amino acid pool and affect the mTOR pathway:
Nuts (1/4 cup): 5 g
Peanuts (1/4 cup): 9.5 g
Peanut butter (2 tbs): 8 g
Almonds (1/4 cup): 7.5 g
Sunflower seeds (1/4 cup): 6.5 g
Oatmeal (1 cup): 6 g
Black beans (1/4 cup): 4.5 g
Pinto beans (1/4 cup): 3.5 g
Chickpeas (1/4 cup): 4 g
Quinoa (1/2 cup): 4.5 g
Lentils (1/2 cup): 9 g
Tempeh (1/2 cup): 20 g
Brown rice (1/2 cup): 2.5 g
Broccoli (1/2 cup): 2.5-3 g
Spinach (1/2 cup): 2.5 g
Coconut milk (1 cup): 6 g

Cites:

Primal Body, Primal Mind
Nora T. Gedgaudas, CNS, CNT

Wikipedia

Ideal Weight Calculator

Related Posts:

What About Vegetarianism ?

Vegetarianism started becoming popular in the U.S. at the end of the 1960’s, with the birth of the Hippie Movement.

Most of these vegetarians based their reasons for eating a vegetarian diet on what they considered to be moral, spiritual, natural, and healthful principles.

“The idea that humans must consume animal flesh and excretions as part of a balanced diet is a monstrous myth that is quietly murdering billions of humans, animals and the environment. Heart Disease, Cancer, Stroke, Diabetes and the other 15 leading causes of human death have now been repeatedly verified and concluded through scientific meta-studies to be caused by the consumption of animal products. Furthermore, switching to a plant-based diet has proven to reverse almost all of them!

“The following documentary proves beyond any reasonable doubt that humans are NOT natural omnivores or carnivores, in fact every organ in our bodies is that of a frugivore/herbivore, and our choice to believe otherwise is slowly killing all of our friends, human and animal.:

Below is the traditional food pyramid:

 

The entire top three levels of the traditional pyramid (meat, dairy, refined fats/sugars) are not, by any means, necessary or conducive to good health.

There is not a single vitamin, mineral, nutrient, phyto-nutrient, amino-acid, fatty-acid, protein-chain, omega, or any other such elusive vital ingredient to health, not a single thing found in meat or dairy products that cannot be found, in greater abundance and more optimally, in the plant kingdom. For instance there are more omegas in seaweed than in fish, over twice as much protein in spinach than steak, and four times more calcium in sesame seeds than in milk.

The graphic below shows the vegetarian food pyramid:

Meat and dairy products are highly acidic, fattening, cholesterol-laden, artery-clogging, lymph-clotting, mucus-forming, constipating, difficult to digest, and full of worms, parasites, bacteria, metabolic waste, hormones, and chemicals. Eggs are actually unfertilized avian menstrual cycles, otherwise known as chicken periods. Milk is the puss and hormone-filled mammary excretions of a female cow and meant to nourish her young. None of these animal bits and pieces are beneficial or necessary for human consumption.

There is not a single chronic disease or deficiency exclusive to vegans. However, heart disease, cancer, tumors, cysts, MS, diabetes, and many other major health problems have all been cured by switching to a 100% vegan diet. Some of the strongest animals in nature like gorillas, elephants, moose, rhinos, hippos, and giraffes are all vegetarians. The idea that you need to eat another animal’s flesh to be strong is a ridiculous superstition.

Our human anatomy is undeniably designed to subsist on plant foods and not on animal flesh; literally every aspect of our bodies proves we are herbivore/frugivores and not carnivore/omnivores.

To begin with, humans and other natural vegetarians have 4x longer, convoluted intestinal tracts perfect for slow digesting fruits and starches, whereas omnivore/carnivores have 4x shorter intestines to quickly push out the acidic, putrefying animal flesh they eat.

Humans have alkaline saliva ptyalin to pre-digest grains, alkaline urine, and weak stomach acid whereas all omnivore/carnivores have acidic saliva, acidic urine, and 10-1000x stronger hydrochloric stomach acid essential for digesting meat.

All natural flesh-eaters also secrete the enzyme “uricase” necessary to metabolize the uric acid in meat, but uricase is not produced by our human bodies.

 

Humans have lateral jaw movement and flat molars for grinding grains and vegetables whereas natural flesh eaters have no lateral jaw movement and scores of huge fangs for biting and ripping. Humans have short, weak fingernails whereas carnivores and omnivores have long, strong, sharp claws for cutting through skin and flesh. Humans must take in Vitamin C from our food whereas all carnivores and most omnivore’s bodies produce their own Vitamin C. Natural omnivores and carnivores also have a microbial tolerance far higher than humans. For example the botulinum toxin which is deadly to humans but is easily and safely digested by natural flesh-eaters.

Humans eating a high fat diet become obese, lazy, and diseased whereas natural flesh eaters stay trim, energetic and absolutely thrive on their high fat diet. Human vision is easily able to differentiate various colors making it simple to discern ripe from unripe plant foods, whereas the color vision of most omnivore/carnivores is far less discerning. Humans sleep only 6-12 hours a day like most herbivore/frugivores, whereas most omnivore/carnivores sleep 18-20 hours a day. Humans sweat from pores all over our bodies whereas all carnivores and most omnivores release perspiration from their tongues. Humans have single births and two mammary glands whereas most all omnivores and carnivores birth litters of several babies have have rows upon rows of mammary glands.

“In using comparative anatomy to determine what man was ‘meant’ to eat, we should look at the species most similar to man, namely the anthropoid apes – chimpanzees, gibbons, gorillas, and orangutans. Of all animals, man’s digestive organs and teeth most closely resemble these apes. In captivity, some of these animals will eat meat if forced to rather than starve to death. But in the wild, all eat a vegetarian diet. Another strong clue that man is naturally a vegetarian is the fact that vegetarians in general are much healthier than omnivores. The American Dietetic Association has acknowledged that vegetarians are less at risk for a number of chronic diseases, including heart disease, some types of cancer, obesity, high blood pressure, and adult-onset diabetes … Eating a healthy diet goes far beyond cutting back a bit on red meat. In a recent study of 6,500 Chinese, Dr. T. Collin Campbell of Cornell found that even though the Chinese overall eat only a fraction of the animal protein Americans do, those who ate the least animal protein nonetheless had lower risk of disease than the average Chinese. Dr. Campbell concludes, ‘We’re basically a vegetarian species and should be eating a wide variety of plant foods and minimizing our intake of animal foods.'” -Glen Kime, president, Vegetarian Society of Washington, D.C.

All omnivores and carnivores eat their meat raw, tearing through fur/skin, and lapping up the nutrient-rich blood with their tongues. A true omnivore like a bear will take a fish out of the water and swallow it whole, uncooked, scales, bones, fins, head and everything. When a lion kills an herbivore for food, it tears right into the stomach area to eat the raw stomach, liver, intestines, and other organs that are filled with blood and nutrients. They will NOT eat cooked meat. For most humans, the smell and taste of raw bloody meat is putrid, so in order to consume it they must first clean, cook, season and marinate the flesh in various vegetarian herbs and spices to make it palatable.

“The final point I would like to make on how we as humans were not meant to eat meat is this. All omnivorous and carnivorous animals eat their meat raw. When a lion kills an herbivore for food, it tears right into the stomach area to eat the organs that are filled with blood (nutrients). While eating the stomach, liver, intestine, etc., the lion laps the blood in the process of eating the dead animals flesh. Even bears that are omnivores eat salmon raw. However, eating raw or bloody meat disgusts us as humans. Therefore, we must cook it and season it to buffer the taste of flesh. If a deer is burned in a forest fire, a carnivorous animal will NOT eat its flesh. Even circus lions have to be feed raw meat so that they will not starve to death. If humans were truly meant to eat meat, then we would eat all of our meat raw and bloody. The thought of eating such meat makes one’s stomach turn. This is my point on how we as humans are conditioned to believe that animal flesh is good for us and that we were meant to consume it for survival and health purposes. If we are true carnivores or omnivores, cooking our meat and seasoning it with salt, ketchup, or tabasco sauce would disguise and we as humans would refuse to eat our meat in this form.” -Dr. Akilah El (1)

Cites:

(1) Stop Eating Your Friends! (Go Vegan) – Eric Dubay